
Fundamental mathematics and physics
A.G. Grin
On the Central Limit Theorem for Symmetric Functions
of the Dependent Variables
The necessary and sufficient conditions for convergence of distributions of
symmetric functions of random variables to the normal law are obtained in this article.
These conditions include the socalled minimal conditions of the weak dependence.
Keywords: Symmetric functions of random variables, central limit theorem, minimal
conditions of the weak dependence.
I.A. Eganova, W. Kallies
Time Structure of the Complex Systems: Methodical Review
The structure of time series that describes the dynamics of the key
characteristic of the complex system internal state is discussed as time structure
corresponding to that system and assigning the mode of its existence. Based on the
notion about the information included in the time structure, its mathematical
description is proposed using the wellknown means: the mean value of the key
characteristic and its instantaneous deviation from the mean value. From this point of
view, we discovered the meaning of the function used by H. Hurst in his analysis of
time series that describe the dynamics of natural processes and phenomena: it assigns
time structure, and its range is the size of the time structure in the period of time
covered by observation. The authors define the size of the elements that compose the
structure and propose an interpretation of the Hurst empirical law as a ratio that
describes the quantity of structural elements in the given period of time. This
interpretation allowed to propose an essentially new approach to the explanation of
the socalled Hurst phenomenon (the values of the Hurst exponent are bigger than
1/2), as well as its properties observed in various factual evidence. In conclusion,
the accessory of complex organized systems to harmonic systems (Yu.G. Kosarev, 1988)
is discussed in brief.
Keywords: time series, time structure, R/S analysis, Hurst rescaled range, Hurst
exponent, R/S statistics, Hurst statistics, Hurst phenomenon, Hurst empirical law.
A.N. Romanov
About Compactness and Causality
The article discusses the relationship between the behavior of the causal
structure of spacetime and its topology, namely, attention is paid to the study of the
causes of the presence or absence of a causal closure sets of the past and the future
depending on the conditions of compactness sets associated with past and future
causal spacetime points. An example, when the presence of closed noncompact sets
of the spacetime associated with the cause of future or past of any point entails the
fact of not closed causal past and the future of some points, is given.
Keywords: spacetime, compactness, causality.
Applied Mathematics and Modeling
V.N. Borodikhin
Study of the Systems Behavior in Phase Transitions
on the Coalescence Stage
Abstract. For the first time the twodimensional disordered Ising model with deformed
Tsallis statistics, with spin concentrations of 0.95 and 0.8 is investigated. The
values of critical temperatures and the critical exponents are obtained. For disordered
model with deformed statistics the emergence of a new type of critical behavior
depending on the concentration of impurities is revealed.
Keywords: phase transitions, deformed statistics, Ising model.
L.A. Volodchenkova, A.K. Guts
Climax Forest as the Nash Equilibrium of Forest Ecosystems
To find the possible equilibrium states of forest ecosystems one are
encouraged to use the theory of differential games. Within the 4tier model of
mosaic forest communities the existence in such ecosystems of the Nash
equilibrium states is established.
Keywords: forest ecosystem, the equilibrium of the ecosystem, differential game,
Nash equilibrium, climax forest.
S.L. Deryabin, A.S. Kiryanova
Generalization of a Centered Riemann Wave Taking into Account
the Forces of Gravity
The paper examines twodimensional isentropic flow of a polytropic gas
under the action of gravity. As a mathematical model a system of equations of gas
dynamics is used. To put the problem of decay of a special break the degenerate change
of variables is made in the system, namely: dependent and independent variables
change roles. In the new variables for the system initialboundary value problem with
data on the characteristics of the sound and the additional condition is put. This
condition describes the instantaneous destruction of the impermeable wall separating
the gas from the vacuum at the initial time. We prove the existence and uniqueness of
the initialboundary value problem in the vicinity of the sound characteristics. Next,
the solution is constructed in the form of a power series. To determine the
coefficients of the series systems of ordinary differential equations are written and
integrated. Coefficients of the series structure analysis has proved the existence
of the built solution in the range from the sound characteristics to the boundary of
the gasvacuum inclusive. To determine the law of motion of gasvacuum boundary
quasilinear system of partial differential equations is written, which by means of a
characteristic parameter is reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations.
After integration of the latter system in parametric form the law of motion of
gasvacuum boundary values and parameters of the gas on it are obtained.
Keywords: polytropic gas, vacuum, force of gravity, the gas dynamics equations,
gasvacuum boundary, initialboundary value problem, Riemann problem, centered wave.
A.V. Eremeev, C.R. Reeves
On Confidence Intervals for the Number of Local Optima
Abstract. The number of local optima is an important indicator of optimization
problem difficulty for local search algorithms. Here we will discuss some methods
of finding the confidence intervals for this parameter in problems where the large
cardinality of the search space does not allow exhaustive investigation of solutions.
Computational results are reported that were obtained by using these methods for
\({\mathcal NK}\) landscapes model of S.A. Kauffman, for the low autocorrelation binary sequence,
for buffer allocation problems in production line, and vertex cover problems.
Keywords: local search, combinatorial optimization problem, Schnabel census,
conservative confidence interval.
D.N. Lavrov, A.A. Kondurina
Determining the Path of Movement of the Observer of System
Detecting Unauthorized Installed Wireless Access Points
The paper presents the construction and study of the dynamical system
describing the trajectory of the observer by measuring accelerations, which in turn
is an estimate of the unknown control. The problem arises in the construction of
detection systems of installed unauthorized wireless access points indoors. We studied
the observability of the system, investigated the work of Kalman filter and optimal
smoothing filter. Heuristic algorithms of trajectory recovery are proposed. A computer
simulation of the proposed algorithms is conducted.
Keywords: Kalman filter, smoothing, positioning, wireless access points.
A.V. Lisin, K.S. Yakovenko
Hybrid Methods for Solving Constrained Optimization Problems Using Metaheuristics
Abstract. In the article hybrid methods of numerical solving constrained optimization
problems based on classical approaches such as penalty functions method, Lagrange
multipliers theory and metaheuristics are discussed. The example of hybrid method
based on particle swarm optimization and augmented Lagrangian method is given.
Numerical experiment results are provided.
Keywords: constrained optimization, metaheuristics, penalty functions, Lagrange
multipliers.
N.S. Novakovskiy
The Combined Numerical Method for Solving the OneDimensional Ideal Gas ShockFree Strong Compression Problem in R. Mises Configuration
Abstract. A method for solving the onedimensional ideal gas shockfree strong
compression problem in R. Mises configuration is proposed. The method combines
finitedifference method ”ROMB” and tracking feature method. The method allows to
calculate gasdynamic characteristic (velocity, density, etc.) of ideal gas layer while
time increases and provides better accuracy in comparison with other finitedifference
methods. The accuracy of the proposed method was demonstrated in calculations of
test planesymmetry problem. Exact solution and numerical one agree quite well.
Numerical results of solving onedimensional problems with different symmetry and
gas characteristic are also shown. The main results of numerical simulations are shown
in graphs and tables.
Keywords: gas strong compression, finite difference method ”Romb”, discontinuity
tracking method.
Abstract. A scheme for analysis of linear dynamical systems described by stochastic
integrodifferential equations with nondifference kernels is considered. Such equations
are mathematical models of a significant number of phenomena in various scientific
and technological fields including the theory of oscillations for objects with
lumped and distributed parameters taking into account aeroautoelasticity, heredity,
(thermo)viscoelasticity and aging of materials (asphalt, concrete, biopolymers, rocks,
colloidal solutions, composites, natural and synthetic polymers, suspensions, glass,
cellulose, etc.) and others. The calculation scheme proposed is based on a modification
of the iterative method for approximation of the matrix Green’s function and
is designed to compute the first moment functions of the state vector of the system
including functions of mathematical expectation and covariance functions. The example
shows an application of our scheme for an analysis of a model system with two
degrees of freedom.
Keywords: stochastic analysis, linear dynamic system, state vector,
integrodifferential equation, matrix Green’s function, moment function.
O. Kosheleva, V. Kreinovich
Why Most Bright
Stars Are Binary But Most Dim Stars Are Single: A Simple Qualitative Explanation
It is known that most visible stars are binary: they have a nearby
companion star, and these two stars orbit around each other. Based on this
fact, until recently, astronomers believed that, in general, most stars are binary. A few years ago, a surprising paper showed that while most bright
stars are indeed binary, most dim stars are single. In this paper, we provide a
simple qualitative explanation for this empirical fact.
Keywords: binary stars, single stars, statistics
O. Kosheleva, V. Kreinovich
When Invading,
Cancer Cells Do Not Divide: A Geometric
(SymmetryBased) Explanation of an Empirical
Observation
In general, malignant tumors are known to grow fast, cancer cells
that form these tumors divide and spread around. Tumors also experience the
process of metastasis, when cancer cells invade neighboring organs. A recent
experiment has shown that, contrary to the previous assumptions, when cancer
cells are invading, they stop dividing. In this paper, we provide a geometric
explanation for this empirical phenomenon.
Keywords: cancer, metastasis, symmetry
O. Kosheleva, V. Kreinovich
Yes and NoGestures Explained by Symmetry
In most cultures, “yes” is indicated by a vertical head movement
(nod), while “no” is indicated by a leftright movement (shake). In this paper,
we show that basic symmetries can explain this cultural phenomenon.
Keywords: yesgestures, nogestures, nodding vs.~shaking,
symmetry
Ñomputer Science
F. Zapata and V. Kreinovich
Why Pairwise Testing Works So Well: A Possible Theoretical Explanation of an Empirical Phenomenon
Some software defects can be detected only if we consider all
possible combinations of three, four, or more inputs. However, empirical data
shows that the overwhelming majority of software defects are detected during
pairwise testing, when we only test the software on combinations of pairs of
different inputs. In this paper, we provide a possible theoretical explanation
for the corresponding empirical data.
Keywords: software testing, pairwise testing, empirical data, theoretical explanation